Venetian beads

History of  Venetian beads.
The aggressive Romans who have subdued Egypt, borrowed glass know-how from the Egyptian masters.
And since VI century Byzantium became the centre of glass art. Byzantines widely used examples of glass production that used romans. This way,the first glass beads were made in Venice.According to the The first documents testifying
the processing of glass in venice began in the 10th century. In X century the present blossoming
of beaded manufacture has begun.
In 1221, according to the decision of the council, all glass workshops have been transferred from a city on nearby island Murano because of frequent fires.

For the Long time it was a unique place in Europe where beads were made. Venetians carefully preserved secrets
of creation of a glass. those glass masters,who have told anyone the secret of glass making were threatened with death, and to its relatives -to a dungeon.
In XIII in the number of workshops on glass manufacture increases, many of which used to make beads.
In the end of XIII century art of bead making has so extended in Venice that in 1284 the Corporation of
manufacturers of crystal supervised production of glaziers, being afraid of fakes of glass beads.
The Venetian beads and beads of the highest quality, various colors and shades were carried by merchants
across all Europe. Masters and skilled workers decorated clothes, footwear, handbags, blankets and
other graceful bagatelles. The European travelers and colonizers took with themselves beads in the foreign
Venetian BeadsInhabitants of Africa,used to give gold, spices, furs for the beads.
Long time nobody could put a competition to Venetian glassmakers. In many European
countries attempts to base manufacture of a glass beads and beads were undertaken, but these products competed in quality with Venetian ones.

Only in XVIII century numerous attempts of masters of Thuringia to gain secret of
Venetians have led them to the invention of an easy exaggerated glass beads.
And then the Czech talented bohemian masters have mastered manufacture of high-quality beads.

Moreover, they have learnt to granite it and to cover with enamels. Bohemia beads and beads differed by
the big variety of colors, the sizes, forms and a facet. Now The turn came to Czech masters who have started to hide the techniques of bead pruduction.
In 1445 the Senate of Venice has  published the special decree providing strict punishment for a fake bead productors, and not only for manufacturers, but also for distributors of false ornaments. So have appeared masters who in 1604 have united with manufacturers of crystal in Corporation of masters-manufacturers of beads and color beads.

In the beginning of XVI century a new way of processing of the glass was invented,and received the name “over fire”, or “over a lamp”.
The Venetian beads were very highly appreciated and have got world popularity. In XVII and XVIII centuries with the help of the special technique and usage of some materials (presumably wax, silver and the fish scales) it was possible to create glass beads which simulated the well-known beads made by masters from the Muslim countries. And then the
government of Venice has published again the strict laws forbidding to masters to open the secrets.
This is the history of glass beads invention in the Venice.